Japanese courtesans. The high ranked ourtesans found in Tokyo were known as Oiran and the high ranked courtesans from Kyoto were called Tayuu. The young girl in red is called a Kamuro. They were courtesans in training and would serve as assistants to their teachers. The courtesans are no longer in business today, but parades are still held in both Kyoto and Tokyo using actors and actresses with all participants in full regalia.
(Kamuro photo found here: http://www.flickr.com/photos/neconote/)
(Hair photo found here: http://www.flickr.com/photos/topogigio_428/)